- Describe normal variations of skeletal anatomy that may be noted during a child's growth and development,
- Explain the natural history of common causes of intoeing, genu varum and genu valgum,
- Distinguish patients with rotational and angular lower limb abnormalities that require investigation and treatment,
- List the components of normal gait,
- Describe the normal development of gait in childhood,
- Recognize or describe commonly-encountered disturbances of gait seen in childhood and explain their significance,
- Demonstrate an organized and structured approach to the diagnosis of a limping child,
- Diagnose commonly encountered childhood limps and identify less common etiologies that require urgent management.
- Recognize and assess a patient presenting with a spinal deformity,
- Categorize the risk of (idiopathic) scoliotic curve progression as high or low based upon history, physical and imaging information,
- Differentiate common infant foot deformities and explain their significance.
Lawrence, P., Essentials of Surgical Specialties, 3rd edition p. 259-267 and 279-284